Diversity among health care leaders in Canada: a cross-sectional study of perceived gender and race
Race was concordantly perceived in 2946 individuals (96.4%). At the ministry level, fewer than 5 (< 7%) of 80 leaders were perceived as racialized (Table 1). Five (7.1%) of 70 leaders in centralized hospital provinces, 24 (11.5%) of 209 leaders in regional hospital provinces and 243 (9.2%) of 2633 leaders in individual hospital provinces were perceived as racialized (Table 1). Perceived race by category is presented in Appendix 1, Supplementary Table 4.Across the country, no leaders in health ministry positions were perceived as racialized women, and this group comprised 5% or fewer of hospital leaders in all provinces, with the exception of BC (Table 1). Where estimates of race and gender were not limited by sample size, we did not see a consistent pattern of further proportional limitations for racialized women. Specifically, in provinces with regional hospital systems, the proportion of leaders perceived as racialized was 11.5%, and 7.2% of leaders were perceived as both racialized and women; in provinces with individual hospital leadership, these proportions were 9.2% and 3.8%, respectively.Across Canada, 5 (41.7%) of 12 deputy ministers and 61 (51.7%) of 118 hospital presidents or chief executive officers (CEOs) were identified as women (Table 2). Individuals perceived as racialized held 7 (5.9%) of the 118 highest-level hospital leadership roles in the country, and those coded as both racialized and women held fewer than 5 of these roles (Table 2). No deputy ministers were perceived as racialized.